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Students solve chemical problems by using mathematical formulation principles and chemical calculations in addition to laboratory experiments. They build on their general understanding of chemical principles and engage in a more in-depth study of the nature and reactivity of matter. Students focus on the structure of atoms, molecules, and ions, and then go on to analyze the relationship between molecular structure and chemical and physical properties. To investigate this relationship, students examine the molecular composition of common substances and learn to transform them through chemical reactions with increasingly predictable outcomes. Students prepare for the AP Exam. The course content aligns to the sequence of topics recommended by the College Board.
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Unit 1: Chemistry Foundations
How does chemistry affect your life? You may not think of it much, but everything you see, everything you touch, and everything you feel has a basis in chemistry. Chemistry helps us understand things in nature, like when butterflies have such colorful wings, and why leaves change colors in the fall. We use chemistry to develop new products and to make existing products better. How can you use chemistry to relate quantities of substances? What do the chemical equations mean? The first step in using chemistry is understanding its foundations. You’ll do that in this unit.
· Chemical Reactions and the Mole
Unit 2: Chemical Reactions and Electrochemistry
No matter where you go these days it seems like people are talking on a cell phone. At the store, at sports events, at the park – cell phones are everywhere! Have you ever forgotten to plug in a cell phone? The power a cell phone needs comes from chemical reactions within its battery. If the chemical reactions stop, a cell phone will not work. The chemical reactions in a cell phone’s battery are a type of electrochemistry – chemical reactions that either use or produce electric current. In this unit you will learn about electrochemistry and other types of chemical reactions, including those that power a cell phone.
· Chemistry Reactions
· Chemical Reactions and Electrochemistry
Unit 3: Thermodynamics
Mmmmmmm! Breakfast. For some people, it’s their favorite meal. Or maybe you like to eat breakfast later in the day. Have you ever stopped to think about why some foods have to be heated in order to cook them? Many forms of cooking are chemical reactions. Why is heating needed for the reactions to occur? Pancake batter only turns into pancakes when you heat it. Bread only turns into toast in the hot toaster. Why? Because heat is a form of energy, and energy can cause changes in matter. In this unit you will learn about thermodynamics – the study of how energy is related to physical changes in matter.
· Energy Changes in Matter
Unit 4: Atomic Structure and Bonding
Have you ever seen the aurora borealis? You may also have heard them called the northern lights–or, in the Southern Hemisphere, the southern lights. The beautiful colors of the auroras are actually a clue to the structure of atoms. Atoms in an excited state can release excess energy as light. Scientists can learn about the atoms by studying their light emissions. Understanding the structure of atoms is an important step in understanding how elements combine to form various materials. Properties such as hardness and flexibility depend on how the atoms join to form compounds. In this unit you will learn about the structure of atoms and how they bond.
· Atomic Structure and Periodicity
Unit 5: AP Chemistry Semester 1 Exam
Unit 1: Intermolecular Forces
Think about an ice cube, liquid water, and water vapor. Do the substances look different to you? Look closely at an ice cube and a glass of water. In both substances the molecules are the same, but the arrangement and behavior of the molecules are different. You may have wondered what causes ice to maintain its shape while liquid water flows easily. You're about to discover why different substances such as ice, liquid water, and even water vapor behave the way they do. You will also investigate the concepts behind the properties of different types of matter. Let's dive into the waters of intermolecular forces.
· Intermolecular Forces and the Properties of Solids and Liquids
· Intermolecular Forces and the Properties of Gases
Unit 2: Kinetics
Chemical reactions can be either fast or slow. Almost immediately, you see a bright flame when a fuse is lit; yet it may take years for you to detect rust forming on a car. Now you are ready to discover the link between reactions and reaction rates, and investigate the nature of the reactants, the steps of a reaction, and the factors that control the rate of a chemical reaction. So buckle up as we begin our journey through the kinetics of chemical reactions.
· Reaction Rates
· Reaction Mechanisms and Catalysts
Unit 3: Chemical Equilibrium
Sometimes things are perfectly balanced. And sometimes they're not. What happens if the balance were to be upset? How would things change? Chemical systems can also be in balance. Yet you can disrupt this balance by changing the system — just like the additional silver nuggets upset the balance of the scale. You're about to discover the principles involved in determining how a reaction establishes balance — a term known as equilibrium. You will also encounter the forces that disrupt a system at equilibrium. Prepare to balance the concepts of chemical equilibrium.
· General Equilibrium
· Solubility Equilibrium
Unit 4: Acid Base Equilibria
What do lemons, grapefruit juice, vinegar, and soda have in common? Or ammonia, baking soda, antacid tablets, toothpaste, and chalk? These substances are either acids or bases. You might recognize some of the properties of acids if you have ever had a glass of grapefruit juice or eaten a lemon. Or you may know the chalky taste of bases when you brush your teeth or chew an antacid tablet. Get ready to uncover why the properties of acids and bases are similar and how to recognize strong and weak acids and bases. Then, put this knowledge of acids and bases to the test in buffer solutions. So let's peel back the layers of acid-base equilibria.
· Acid Base Equilibria
Unit 5: AP Chemistry Review and Semester 2 Exam
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AP® Chemistry, Semester 2 (SCI510B)
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