**Course Outline**

Unit 1: Read, Write, Count, and Compare Numbers

This unit focuses on counting, comparing, and ordering numbers. Students explore reading and writing whole numbers, which prepares them to later add and subtract numbers. The skill of skip counting by 2s, 5s, and 10s assist students in comparing and ordering numbers. Skip counting also serves as an important introduction to number patterns as a first step to learning algebraic concepts.

- Numbers Through 50
- Write Numerals Through 50
- Count by 10s and 5s Through 50
- Count by 2s Through 50
- Numbers Through 100
- Write Numerals Through 100
- Count by 10s and 5s Through 100
- Count by 2s Through 100
- Compare Numbers Through 100
- Order Numbers Through 100

Unit 2: Time and Position

Students learn about the hour hand and how to tell time to the nearest hour. Then they learn about the minute hand and how to tell time to the nearest half hour. They learn to identify when it is exactly, a little before, or a little after the hour and the half hour, and to draw these scenarios on a clock. Then students relate time to events, and compare events by how long they take to complete and by the order in which they occur. Students learn to compare, arrange, and describe the position of objects using words such as up, down, behind, in front of, next to, to the left of,>/em> and to the right of.

- Time to the Nearest Hour
- Time to the Nearest Half Hour
- About Time
- Arrange and Describe Position
- Use Direction Words

Unit 3: Introduction to Addition

The concept of part-part-whole is foundational to many topics in math from addition and subtraction to measurement and geometry. Students learn that the meaning of addition is putting together groups of objects, and that the order in which groups are added does not affect the sum. They use sketches, counting chips, and snap blocks to model addition problems, learning that addition is combining, or putting together, groups of objects. They are introduced to the plus sign (+) and the equals sign (=) and learn how to write number sentences using numbers, the plus sign, and the equals sign.

- Model Addition
- Add in any Order
- The Plus Symbol
- The Equals Symbol
- Number Sentences: The Equals Symbol

Unit 4: Addition Facts for Sums Through 12

Students begin by learning different ways to add numbers to make 8, and what happens when adding 0. Students then learn the addition facts for sums through 8, and then sums through 12. They use online and offline flash cards and other activities to help them develop automatic recall, and they complete a chart to document their progress.

- Facts Through 8
- Sums Through 8
- About Time
- Facts Through 12
- Sums Through 12

Unit 5: Addition Facts for Sums Through 20

Students review addition facts with sums through 12 and learn the remaining facts through 16. Then they continue to learn addition facts through 20. Students use online and offline flash cards and other materials and tools to help them develop automatic recall. They complete a chart to document their progress.

- Facts Through 16
- Sums Through 16
- Facts Through 20
- Sums Through 20

Unit 6: Addition Strategies

Students learn to find one more than and ten more than another number. They practice finding one more and ten more using hundred charts and number lines. This leads to learning how to add two numbers by counting on. Students use counting chips and number lines to assist with counting on to add. They learn that counting on from the greater number is easier than counting on from the lesser number. Students are introduced to the associative property, learning that they can group three numbers in different ways to make it easier to find their sum. Finally, students use the various addition strategies they have learned—counting on, using doubles, using memorized facts and similar facts, and grouping to solve addition problems with sums through 30.

- One More, 10 More
- Count On to Add
- Different Ways to Add
- Grouping to Add
- Grouping Addends

Unit 7: Addition Number Sentences

Students identify and practice showing numbers in various ways—with models, sketches, and with addition expressions. They then represent equivalent forms of the same number in multiple ways. Students use a balance to help identify equivalent forms of a number, including two addition expressions that are equal. Then they find a missing number in an addition sentence using the balance. They identify missing sums and missing addends, using the balance and snap cubes as tools. They learn that you can add two numbers in any order and the sum will not change. They explore this property with balance snap cubes, then use this knowledge to find missing addends in number sentences with addition expressions on each side.

- Different Forms of Numbers
- Ways to Show Numbers
- Missing Numbers in Addition
- Missing Numbers in Addition Sentences

Unit 8: Introduction to Subtraction

Students learn that subtraction means to take away, and they demonstrate the meaning of subtraction by taking away objects. They learn that when they subtract, the number that is left is the difference. They learn the meaning of the minus symbol (-) and review the meaning of the equals symbol (=) so they can read and write subtraction sentences. Students explore the relationship between addition and subtraction, learning that they are opposite operations. They demonstrate the opposite operations with objects and drawings. They learn that subtraction is not commutative, and that subtracting zero from a given number results in a difference of the original number. Students then learn about using subtraction in comparing numbers, which allows them to find how much greater or lesser a number is than another number. They use pairing, modeling, and drawings to compare numbers.

- Understand Subtraction
- The Minus Symbol
- Equal Expressions
- More Equal Expressions
- Put Together, Take Away
- Order and Zero in Subtraction
- Subtract to Compare
- Use Pairs to Subtract

Unit 9: Subtraction Facts Through 20

Students explore different strategies to solve subtraction problems with minuends through 20, including using models, counting back, using patterns, and using addition facts and fact families. They practice the subtraction facts, working toward automatic recall: first through 12, then through 16, and finally through 20.

- Subtraction Facts Through 8
- Relate Addition and Subtraction
- Subtraction Facts Through 12
- Count Back Subtraction Facts
- Subtraction Facts Through 16
- Facts Using Subtraction
- Subtraction through 20
- All the Subtraction Facts

Unit 10: Subtraction Strategies

Students learn various strategies to use in solving subtraction problems. They start by learning how to find one less than and 10 less than a given number. Then students use hundred charts and number lines to count back, use counting chips to model subtraction, and use facts that they know to help them find differences.

- One Less, Ten Less
- Counting Back and Other Strategies
- Use Strategies to Subtract

Unit 11: Semester Review and Checkpoint

Unit 12: Subtraction Number Sentences

Students model and draw the same number in different ways. They also write different expressions for the same number. They use various strategies to find the missing number in a subtraction number sentence. The missing number may be a difference or a subtrahend.

- Same Number Different Ways
- Represent Numbers Different Ways
- Missing Parts in Subtraction Sentences
- Subtract with Missing Numbers

Unit 13: Money and Measurement

Students recognize, identify by name, and learn the value of pennies, nickel, dimes, and quarters. They identify how many of a named coin are in a group and learn to find the value of a group of one type of coin. They identify groups of coins that have the same value. Although the coin names are shown on the screen, students are required to read the coin names. Students learn to measure with nonstandard units and to compare length, weight, capacity, and volume.

- Coins
- Identify Coins
- Equal Money Amounts
- Measure and Compare Length
- Weight
- Capacity and Volume

Unit 14: Place Value, Addition, and Subtraction

In this unit, students learn about place value through 100. They learn how to count and group objects in tens and ones, how to estimate quantities and number of objects, and how to use base- 10 blocks to model and write a two-digit number as tens and ones. Students model two-digit numbers different ways as an introduction to regrouping tens as ones and ones as tens. Students apply regrouping to add and subtract with sums and minuends through 100. Students learn several addition and subtraction strategies to help them find sums and differences of two-digit numbers.

- Tens, Ones, and Estimation
- Place Value
- Represent Numbers
- Place Value for Numbers
- Model Numbers Different Ways
- Use Objects to Add
- Use Sketches to Add
- Addition with Sums through 100
- Different Ways to Add
- Use Objects to Subtract
- Use Sketches to Subtract
- Subtraction with Regrouping
- More Subtraction with Regrouping
- Different Ways to Subtract
- Add and Subtract

Unit 15: Add or Subtract: Problem Solving

Students solve story problems about the number of stars on the US flag. They learn that as we added states to our country, we added stars to the flag. They use base-10 blocks, models, or sketches to solve addition and subtraction story problems. Students work with the concept of parts and total, how to recognize a problem in which amounts are combined, and that they can use subtraction to solve a problem in which one part and the total are given and the other part is missing. Students solve combine problems in which the total is missing as well as problems in which a part is missing.

- Adding Stars to the Flag
- Compare and Change Stories
- Story Problems to 100
- Part, Part, Total Problems
- Problems with Parts and Total
- More Exploration with Combine Story Problems
- Change Problems
- Missing Numbers in Story Problems
- More Exploration with Solving Change Word Problems
- More Exploration with Solving Change Word Problems
- Comparison Story Problems
- Story Problems that Compare
- More Exploration with Compare Story Problems

Unit 16: Add or Subtract: More Problem Solving

Students check the accuracy of an answer to a word problem, look at two word problems to see how they are similar, and use a problem and its solution to solve a similar problem. They learn about creating story problems that represent number sentences.

- Equalize Story Problems
- Make Them Equal
- More Story Problems
- Explore Number Sentences
- Number Sentences
- Write and Solve Number Sentences
- Check Your Answers
- Explain Solution Strategies
- Justify Selected Procedures
- Justify Different Solutions
- Story Problems That Are Alike
- Write Story Problems

Unit 17: Geometric Figures, Data, and Attributes

This unit focuses on shape, color, size, and number patterns. Students identify and describe plane shapes and compare them to the faces of solid figures. They demonstrate taking apart and putting together shapes to make other shapes. They learn how to recognize and describe the pattern core and then extend the pattern. Students identify what the shapes in a given group have in common, sort objects by common attributes, and represent and compare data in a tally chart.

- Plane Figures
- Put Together and Take Apart Shapes
- Group Shapes Different Ways
- Classify Objects and Data
- Patterns
- Tally Charts and Bar Graphs
- Data in Pictures and Graphs

Unit 18: Semester Review and Checkpoint